The concept and definition

Data on the application of disinfection date back to ancient Egypt. However, the real significance of disinfection was recognized only after Pasteur’s discovery of germs and the introduction of disinfection as an obligatory requirement in surgical operations in1867. By definition, disinfection represents a targeted reduction in the number of undesirable microorganisms by physical or chemical means.

Depending on the type of microorganism, duration and conditions of application, disinfection is divided into:

• Preventive disinfection ( is implemented in all places where there is a risk of the spread of microorganisms. Its aim is to reduce the number of infectious germs below the level that presents the risk of infection. It is carried out regularly in health care facilities, facilities for the processing and production of food, drinking water, kindergartens, homes, etc..

• Liquid disinfection (disinfection during the course of a disease) is being implemented in the immediate vicinity of the diseased humans or animals.

• Final disinfection involves the destruction of infectious microbes in the environment visited or inhabited by a diseased person.

Depending on the means used, disinfection can be:

• Physical disinfection that is carried out by applying heat and energy radiation.

• Chemical disinfection is most common in practice. Disinfectants that are used have a wide range of activity, are not toxic to humans and domestic animals, have no corrosive effect and are not flammable.