The concept and definition
Pest control by desinsection is a set of measures and procedures to suppress or control insect populations. It is carried out in order to protect the health of humans and domestic animals and reduce the economic damage that is caused by insect pest. Measures taken in the field disinsection should have preferably preventive character.
Preventive measures are all the measures that relate to the removal of conditions favorable for development and reproductive capacity of insects. Preventive measures these measures relate to insect control by mehanical, physical, biological and chemical agents.
Kinds of preventive measures:
Mechanical means include mechanical cleaning, bonding tape, nets, traps, etc.
The application of these measures includes the application of flame, scouring, steam and dry heat.
Biological means include predators and nematodes, fungi, bacteria and viruses that could be introduced into the insect pest/vector population as microbial agents.
These means include the application of insecticides/biocides and repellents of various chemical groups. The choice of a particular chemical depends on the insect species, their population size, development stage and the facility in which disinfestation should be implemented.
The most common insects
Cockroaach Blatella Germanica is the most widespread and largest cockroach. It favors moist and warm environments. . An adult insect is light brown in color and its body length ranges from 10-15mm. Its secretions pollute food. It inhabits households, bakeries, hotel kitchens, restaurants, hospitals, food process factories and food production facilities. Beside this insect, in our region is often found the black cockroach Blatta orientalis.
GRAIN WEEVIL (Sitophilus granaries)
Grain weevil is a species that is widespread in all areas where cereals are grown. It causes great damage to wheat, rye, barley and maize. It is located in the warehouses of grain, silos and mills. Grain weevil is a primary pest and can feed on intact grains. Its size is 3-4,5mm and its colour is hazel to glossy black. In addition to the granary weevil, important storage pests are: rice weevil (Sitophilus oryzae), maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamais), pea weevil (Bruchus pisorum) bean weevil (Acanthoscelides obsoletus).
CEREAL BORER (Rizoperta dominica)
A grain borer is a typical storage pest. It attacks wheat, corn, barley, rice or can develop and flour. An adult’s size 2.5-3mm, it has a cylindrical body, and its colour varies from red to glossy yellow rust. It can be recognized easily by its notched head and neck shield which is facing down. It is a primary pest.
LITTLE MEALWORM (Tribolium confusum)
Little mealworm has a length of 2.6 - 4.4mm; its colour is reddish or rusty brown. It attacks all kinds of cereals such as bran, peas, oilseeds, dried plant parts, etc It can damage healthy, undamaged wheat with 12% humidity and above. This species occurs in large numbers in warehouses, mills, bakeries and feed mixers. It polluts flour with its feaces and the infested flour gets a reddish colour and pungent smell.
GRAIN MOTH (Sitotroga cerealella)
The front wings of grain moth butterflies are straw yellow, and rear wings are gray. With outstretched wings butterflies measure 15-18mm, and are 6-9mm long. It is one of the most dangerous pests that attack corn. In addition to corn, it feeds wheat and barley, almost always together with Indian meal moth. Freshly hatched caterpillars of this butterfly bore themselves in grains where they feed on endosprem or germ. Last instar caterpillars, especially in corn, chew their way to the seed membrane leaving a round thin lining, the so-called "window". Demaged grains are contaminated with faeces, full of caterpillars, not to be used for human and animal consumption.
MEDITERRANEAN FLOUR MOTH (Ephestia kuhinella )
Mediterranean flour moth is 10-14 mm in length. The spread wings of the butterflies measure 20-25 mm. The front wings are grayish with black stripes, while the rear wings are off-white. In addition to flour, it attacks wheat, almonds, walnuts, dried fruits and vegetables, pasta, cookies, etc. Considerable damage is caused by caterpillars which connect particles of flour with gossamer strands making smaller or larger lumps. Thus, the contaminated flour is not suitable for use. In addition, these lumps can completely clog the pipes and funnels in mills. This is why the Mediterranean flour moth is a pest of great economic significance.
INDIAN MEAL MOTH (Plodia interpunctella)
Indian meal moth is 4-10mm long, with a wingspan of 13-18mm. The front wings are copper-red with white patches at the first third of the base. Rear wings are gray, with a dirty green hues. It attacks corn, especially broken and damaged kernels, as well as wheat, semolina, barley, rye, oatmeal, macaroni, etc. Full grown (last instar) caterpillars of the Indian meal moth attack products by covering them in silky gossamer sheath by which this pests insect is easily recognized.