The concept and definition
Fumigation is a method of combating insects, mites and rodents by applying fumigants. Fumigants are chemical substances that are gaseous at a specific air temperature and pressure in concentrations that cause mortality of harmful organisms that are exposed to them.
The economic importance of pest control
Cereals play an important role in human nutrition but also represent food for harmful insects. Harmful insects not only consume the food but also pollute and deplete the healthy grains, thus reducing their economic value. For these reasons fumigation has been a regular means of protection against pests.
- very high efficiency
- it affects all forms of development of insects
- fumigants penetrate the most inaccessible places
- there are no residues of fumigants in goods
- it can be used to treat packaged goods
- high toxicity of fumigants
- special measures are needed for personal protection of the operators
- the high cost of fumigants
- mandatory measures for the protection of persons handling fumigants
Fumigation is applied to treat a number of agricultural product (cereals, flour and processed flour, soybean, sunflower, beans, dried medicinal herbs, dried fruits and vegetables, tobacco, tea, meat products, etc.). Phosphorous hydrogen which is applied is a very toxic gas and it requires special handling measures personal protection and additional measures in conjuction with the object to be treated.
Fumigation is carried out in a closed room with mandatory complete containment facility in order to prevent the loss of gas from the treated area. Fumigation may be carried out under plastic (nylon) films inside or outside buildings. Phosphorous hydrogen is created under the influence of moisture and temperature of aluminium or magnesium phosphide, after which non-toxic aluminum and magnesium disulfide remain. Phosphorous hydrogen does not affect food nor the equipment in the fumigation facilities. Product that have been subjected to fumigation process may be used 48 hours post treatment. Liquid fumigation is carried out by the application of the chemical on the goods.